Database Management Basics

Database management is the system to manage information that is essential to the organization’s business processes. It includes data storage, distributing it to applications and users and then modifying it if necessary, monitoring changes in the data and preventing the data from becoming corrupted by unexpected failure. It is a part of a company’s overall informational infrastructure which aids in decision making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed for the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a variety of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a collection of tables that organizes data according to a specific pattern, such as one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, referred to as attributes, that represent facts about the entities that comprise the data. The most widely used kind of database is a relational model designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The concept is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it simpler to update data by avoiding the necessity of changing different sections of the database.

The majority of DBMSs support a variety of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level addresses costs, scalability, and other operational issues including the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level is how the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It could comprise a mix of different external views based on different data models. It also can include virtual tables that are calculated with generic data to enhance the performance.

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